• ara-nie: Large nie crystals.
  • ashi: Thin line that runs across the temper line (hamon) to the cutting edge (ha).
  • ayasugi-hada: Regular wavy surface grain pattern (jihada).
  • bakumatsu-to: A sword made during an era in the late Edo period 1853-1867.
  • bizen: Archaic province of Japan, modern-day Okayama prefecture.
  • bokuto: See bokken.
  • boshi: Temper line (hamon) of the blade point (kissaki).
  • bu: Japanese imperial form of measurement.
  • chikei: Black gleaming lines of nie that appear in the ji.
  • chirimen-hada: Distinctly visible mokume-hada with a clearer steel than in similar but coarser patterns.
  • choji abura: Clove oil, used for preserving blades.
  • choji midare: An irregular hamon pattern resembling cloves, with a round upper part and a narrow constricted lower part.
  • chokuto: A straight sword primarily produced during the ancient period.
  • daisho: In context any pair of Japanese swords of differing lengths (daito and shoto) worn together.
  • dogane: Tubular fittings on the tsuka or saya.
  • daito: Any type of Japanese long sword, the larger in a pair of daisho.
  • fuchigane: Decorative reinforcing collar attached to the base of the tsuka.
  • fukura: The cutting edge (ha) of the blade point (kissaki).
  • funbari: Tapering of the blade from the base (machi) to the point (kissaki).
  • gassan-hada: See ayasugi-hada.
  • gendaito: Swords produced after 1876.
  • goban kaji: Swordsmiths summoned by the retired Emperor Go-Toba to work at his palace in monthly rotations.
  • ha: The tempered cutting edge of a blade.
  • habaki: Small metal collar that buffers the tsuba and secures the blade into the saya.
  • habaki-moto: Part of the blade that sits under the habaki.
  • ichimai boshi: A fully tempered point area (kissaki) because the hamon turns back before reaching the point.
  • ichimonji kaeri: A boshi which turns back in a straight horizontal line with a short kaeri.
  • ikubi-kissaki: A short, stubby blade point (kissaki).
  • ji: Area between the ridge (shinogi) and the hamon.
  • jigane: Generally used to refer to the material of the blade.
  • jihada: Visible surface pattern of the steel resulting from hammering and folding during the construction.
  • kaeri: Part of the temper line (hamon) that extends from the tip of the bōshi to the back edge (mune).
  • kaiken: A dagger concealed in the clothing.
  • kasane: Blade thickness measured across the back edge (mune).
  • machi: Notches that divide the blade proper from the tang.
  • masame-hada: Straight surface grain pattern (jihada).
  • matsukawa-hada: Surface grain pattern (jihada) resembling the bark of a pine tree.
  • nagakatana: Any sword with a blade longer than a tanto.
  • nagamaki: Large sword with a usually katana-sized blade and a very long handle of about equal length.
  • naginata: Pole weapon wielded in large sweeping strokes.
  • sageo: Cord attached to the kurikata to help secure the sword in the belt.
  • sakihaba: Blade width (mihaba) at the yokote.
  • sakikasane: Blade thickness (kasane) at the yokote.
  • tachi: Curved sword with a blade length longer than 60 cm.
  • tamahagane: Japanese steel, used for the manufacture of Japanese swords.
  • tsuka: Handle of a Japanese sword.
  • uchigatana: A Japanese sword worn edge-up in the obi.
  • wakizashi: A short sword, often worn together with a katana as the daisho.
  • yakiba: The hardened edge of the blade, formed by the hamon.
  • yakidashi: The area of the blade where the hardened edge (yakiba) begins.
  • yakidashi: The notch at the habaki-moto where the hardened edge (yakiba) starts.
  • yari: A Japanese spear.
  • yasurime: File marks on the tang.
  • yokote: Line that separates the tip area (kissaki) from the rest of the blade.
  • zanmai: Blade-forging technique involving a mixture of tamahagane from several different layers of tatara.